ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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Abstract Greige raw cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for use in absorbent nonwoven products. Thus, it is demonstrated that the use of less expensive cotton gin motes—the by-product of cotton ginning process—in blends with cleaned greige cotton lint can potentially be useful and competitive for many aastm end-use products where absorbency or moisture uptake, swelling, biodegradability, and sustainability are desirable.
ASTM D – 01 Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn )
The microstructure of cotton fibers allows the penetration of water, in the case of the greige cotton nonwovens studied here. The needle-punched d1171 of the different fiber blends were uniformly hydroentangled using a Fleissner MiniJet system Figure 1. Conclusion This study has shown that the ability of cotton gin mote fibers to modulate swelling and moisture uptake is beneficial in absorbent products.
Add to Alert PDF. The sample is rolled into a cylindrical shape, upon itself, and placed in a basket of standardized weight and size. Hydroentangled fabrics of different fiber blends. It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here.
However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on atm in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ]. Table 4 gives the percent crystallinity and cellulose crystallite size of the different types of cotton fibers compared with bleached cotton. This study demonstrates the versatility of nonwoven greige 1d117 when combined with cotton by-products as putative economical substitutes for synthetic fibers in absorbent applications.
Results and discussion 3.
The Kett measures moisture weight loss after drying under a large infrared heat lamp which, minimizes scorching. The gin motes have lower density and higher surface area and thus promote hydrophilic transport of water e1117 the fabric. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of comber noil, gin motes, and UltraClean cotton.
However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made with spun yarns. The basket is removed and allowed to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content. Help us write 1d117 book on this subject and reach those readers. Absorbency characteristics of the various hydroentangled fabrics. In addition, the similarity of the isoelectric points IEPs among the UltraClean cotton samples is consistent with the composition of the samples being cellulosic [ 13 ].
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. This approach opens up considerations for a more eco-friendly and economical use of cotton by-products, i.
The potential to use greige cotton by-products as an economical source for absorbent nonwoven blends is explored. We report here the preparation, characterization, and electrokinetic analysis of cleaned greige cotton adtm 16 dd1117 in combination with gin motes and comber noils at two different blend ratios of the greige cotton and the by-products as a measure of the fabric polarity, swelling, and absorbent properties achievable with these fabric blends.
The samples were weighed into 0. These test methods cover procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed. It further demonstrates the merit of focusing d117 material construction and analysis of fiber surface properties with novel by-product fibers at solid-liquid interfaces and the value of considering the molecular factors that influence properties of wettability and fluid transport as they exist in topsheet and layer components useful in absorbent prototypes, i.
Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions. Absorbent applications Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige wstm fiber.
An outline schematic of the Fleissner MiniJet system used in the study. Nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned greige cotton lint separately blended with comber noils and ginning motes at Water-accessible sites of cellulose are formed when cotton contacted by the high-pressure water jets d117 the nonwoven hydroentanglement process, which enhances the exposure of the primary and secondary cell wall of the fiber to an aqueous environment and results in an increase in cellulose-bound water.
However, ordered microfibrillar cellulose, which is composed of cellulose crystallites, possesses surface hydroxyls that present accessible water binding sites where penetrating water may form a monolayer termed nonfreezing water at a level of 0.