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We do not need to wait for several generations to go by to realize that new words are being incorporated into a language, whether they are from foreign languages loanwords or whether they are newly coined in the language.

El libro de Abeille es un libro muerto al nacer. Whereas the amount of data to be processed did not impose a limitation by itself, although it was challenging at times, decisions were made for practical reasons that might have impacted the results.

We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order to capture, in dee group, a set of languages that would share a geographic and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish language. We decided on Latin, Iberian substrate and Arabic as forming it, although some linguists and philologists might disagree on the latter.

In order to draw final conclusions about the significance of the data, a comparison with the level of borrowing in other similar languages would be required.

This study focuses on the borrowing of lexicon and its associated meaning, which results in loanwords Durkin Joseph y Talbot J. As mentioned in Eslaola 3, the reported donor languages were divided into 10 groups with only English being left by itself due to the difficulty of associating it with other languages.

Hence, and as we will see in the results sections, our only source for words in the last century comes from the NGram dataset. It is thought that both referential transparency and morphosyntactic freedom are factors that ease borrowing of nouns Matras hisotria Average number descadgar loanwords and core language words per century as well as the percentage of loanwords over the total of that century.


These type of words are simply not common in more casual types of texts but are nevertheless frequent in literature and specialized treaties such as the ones contained in the HathiTrust and Google Books Ngrams databases. This is more evident when we descend to the scale of years in our data. Eapaola are tokens, as are acronyms, proper names, or temporal marks [ e. Spanish is using words borrowed from English more frequently which probably correlates with the fact that Spanish is borrowing more and more words from English.

1. Introduction

Real Academia de la Historia, Therefore, the fact the we see words borrowed from other languages is not necessarily the result of personal or societal bilingualism but of established borrowing processes. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that when words appear in a book, they have been present in the speech for a relatively long amount of time; i.

If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked. A token is an individual unit in the natural language analysis of texts. English, occupying a seventh place in the donor list deserves a special mention.

If an innovation becomes entrenched enough, it may end up being conventionalized as part of language A. For instance, is there a quantifiable increase in the use of Japanese words in Korean between —?

In the case of the highest use of vescargar in Spanish, it has to be noted that rqfael years surrounding are especially significative in the case of Spain. During its birth and growth, Spanish was not the only language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. Second, the data needs to be of enough quality at the year level so that we can pinpoint specific years in which the influence is felt and recorded, which due to rhythms of cultural integration and production, it rarely coincides with years of publication of books.


In the 15 th and 16 th centuries, Spanish expanded to many sites overseas such as the Canary Islands, the American, and the Philippines as a result of the work of settlers, soldiers, and missionaries. In order to draw stronger conclusions, two elements are needed.

Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche. However, we do believe these results to be representative. For these reasons, studies that investigate the use of loanwords which have not been incorporated to dictionaries in casual speech or in texts that describe current affairs find a greater presence of English loanwords Esteban Asencio ; Gerding et al.

That is, this figure does not inform the reader of how many loanwords were used which is discussed below in Section 4.

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Loanwords such as selfie or online are increasingly common, but are not equally present in Spanish literature. We will count all lexical items that derived directly or indirectly from these languages as baseline Spanish or core Spanish.

Order and descarfar are lost, and the original text cannot be reconstructed. One of the notable exceptions is Greek, which appears as the top donor to Spanish. Etymology is not an exact science and descargarr needs to make use of whatever resources loanwords have to offer. As apparent in Figure 3we also find a significant degree of noise in the data, specifically before English was left as its own group because of its unique relationship to Spanish.