Aceración con Hornos Básicos de Oxígeno La refinación del arrabio en el proceso BOF o aceración al oxígeno se lleva a cabo en un recipiente que asemeja. Horno Básico de OxígenoUNIDAD 6 Horno Siemens Martin. Convertidor de Soplado Nariz (N) Lanza de Oxigeno (L) Cintur. The basic oxygen furnace (BOF), whose profile is shown in the figure, is a tiltable vessel lined with refractories such as magnesia carbon brick. Auxiliary.
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Two types, “soft” and “hard” burned lime, are available. This seemingly simple practice has increased nof life beyond all expectations, from a few thousand to over 20, heats per campaign.
This is close to the average heat size for the 50 BOFs which were operable in the U. Improved Integrated Steel Plant Productivity. After the war, the Germans were denied the right to manufacture tonnage oxygen, but oxygen plants were shipped to other countries.
Obsolete scrap may contain a variety of other hhorno which could be hazardous or explosive. The following charge chemistry is assumed: Fuentes, Hervey Zamora G.
Contratista EPC 5-150 t básica oxígeno industrial horno fusorio BOF
Environmental challenges at BOS shops include: If the oxygen is lower in purity, nitrogen levels at tap become unacceptable. The rate of solution of a refractory by the slag is dependent on its properties.
Today’s working lining refractories are primarily resin-bonded magnesia-carbon bricks made with high quality sintered magnesite and high purity flake graphite. Most BOF shops in the U. The high concentrations of FeO formed late in the blow, however, will oxidize the carbon in the brick.
All of which makes the purchase and melting of scrap a very complex issue. This rate of production made the process compatible with the continuous casting of slabs, which in turn had an enormous beneficial impact on yields from crude steel to shipped product, and on downstream flat-rolled quality.
This is soon muffled as silicon from the hot metal is horn forming silica, SiO 2which reacts with the basic fluxes to form a gassy molten slag that envelops the lance. The lance is then raised so that the vessel ixigeno be turned down towards the charging aisle for sampling and temperature tests.
Very large pieces of scrap can be difficult to melt and may damage the vessel when charged. Ultimately, the cost per ton of steel for brick and gunning repair materials, coupled with the need for vessel availability, dictate the choice of lining.
The BOS has been a pivotal process in the transformation of the U. Secondary fugitive emissions associated with charging and tapping the BOF vessel, or emissions escaping the main hood oxjgeno oxygen blowing, may be captured by exhaust systems serving local hoods or high canopy hoods located in the trusses of the shop or both.
With the se of continuous casting, the quantity of home scrap has diminished and it is now necessary for integrated mills to buy scrap on the market.
The remainder of U. Therefore, thanks to the engineering genius of Alexander Holley, two Bessemer plants were in operation by In both cases, the cleaned gases must meet EPA-mandated levels bascio particulate matter.
There are two interesting historical footnotes to the original Bessemer story: Bessemer production peaked in the U. Since the BOS process increases productivity by almost an order of magnitude, generally only two BOFs were required to replace a dozen open hearth furnaces.
The Europeans quickly took to the “Thomas Process” because of their very high-phosphorus hot metal, and as a bonus, granulated the phosphorus-rich molten slag in water to create a fertilizer.
Edgar Saldaña –
Nevertheless, the appeal of lower energy, labor, and refractory costs for the LD process could not be denied and although oxygen usage in the open hearth delayed the transition to the new process in the U. Although Bessemer’s father had jokingly suggested using pure oxygen instead of air U. None of the above would be significant however, without the improvements in quality and type of basic brick available to the industry.
Blowing continues for a predetermined time based on the metallic charge chemistry and the melt specification. BOF heat sizes in the U. The sulfur containing compounds report to the slag; however, unless the sulfur-rich slag is skimmed before the hot metal is poured into the BOF, the sulfur actually charged will be well above the level expected from the metal analysis.
Because lime in steel slag absorbs moisture and expands on weathering, its use as an aggregate material is limited, but other commercial uses are being developed to minimize the amount that must be disposed. They are obtained by calcining the carbonate minerals, generally offsite in rotary kilns.